9. Charles II
By John Michael Wright – Scanned from the book The National Portrait Gallery History of the Kings and Queens of England by David Williamson, ISBN 1855142287., Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=6639427
This monarch of Ireland, Scotland, and England lived from May 29, 1630 to February 6, 1685.
His father had been executed during the English Civil War, and Charles II took the throne in 1649. Still, the country had become a de facto republic headed by Oliver Cromwell.
Charles II lived in exile throughout Europe for nine years until Cromwell died.
In 1660, he became King and began to enact the Clarendon Code, reinstalling the anglican church as the official religion of England. He also reigned during the Second Anglo-Dutch War.
After his reign, Charles was known as the Merry Monarch.